Session 4: Social Media / IPR issues

Friday, 19 June, 2015 - 11:30 to 13:00
Conference room: 

Social media as a big public health data source: Review of international bibliography

Background: As the use of social media creates huge amounts of data, the need for big data analysis so as to synthesize the information and determine actions is generated. Online communication channels such as Facebook , Twitter Instagram etc provide a wealth of passively collected data that may be mined for public health purposes such as health surveillance, health crisis management and last but not least health promotion and education. Objective: We explore international bibliography on the potential role and perceptive of use for social media as a big data source for public health purposes. Method: Systematic literature review. Data extraction and synthesis was performed with the use of thematic analysis. Results: Examples of those currently collecting and analyzing big data from generated social content include ie scientists who are working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to track the spread of flu by analyzing what user searches, and the World Health Organization working on disaster management relief . But what exactly do we do with this big social media data? We can track real-time trends and understand them quicker through the platforms and processing services. By processing this big social media data, it is possible to determine specific patterns in conversation topics, users behaviors, overall trends and influencers, sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, and social and cultural constructs. Conclusion: The key to fostering big data and social media converge is process and analyze the right data that may be mined for purposes of public health, so as to provide strategic insights for planning, execution and measurement of effective and efficient public health interventions. In this effort political, economic and legal obstacles need to be seriously considered.

Behind the Health Education scene: emerging concepts in teaching social innovation to Medical students

The term "social innovation" is relatively new, especially when one considers it in the context of health education, but the concept itself is not. There are many examples of social innovation throughout history, but recently it has been defined as those "new ideas (products, services and models) that simultaneously meet social needs (more effectively than alternatives) and create new social relationships or collaborations" [1]. In wikipedia the term refers to "new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet the social needs of different elements which can be from working conditions and education to community development and health — they extend and strengthen civil society" [2]. All these solutions should be both social in a double way, who they provide benefit to (the end user) and in their means of doing so. The latter contains the notion of social processes of innovation, such as "open source methods and techniques", but it inherently supposes a social purpose in innovation, like for example distance learning. For the European Commission, solutions can take the form of genuine innovations or of improved solutions [3] and can be fostered in different ways from networking and competition to finance and incubation. In this presentation emphasis is first drawn on how these new concepts might be introduced to medical students in the undergraduate curriculum through a course on "Entrepreneurship and Innovation". Then, focus is shifted to how we design a continuing education program that will be blended by results of innovation, that is how results and products from funded research projects are fueling blended learning, so that they can facilitate education for all the society and assist not only job hunting per se (highlighting examples of social entrepreneurship and social enterprises), but also aim at improving the quality of life of the society as they have become popular rallying points for those trying to improve the world [4]. References 1. Mulgan G, Simon J (Calulier-Grice) and Murray R, Open Book of Social Innovation, The Young Foundation, March 2010 2. 3. European Commission, Enterprise and industry, 4. Phills Jr. JA, Deiglmeier K, Miller DT, Rediscovering Social Innovation, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Fall 2008,

Social and Social Networking Media a University of Technology, Jamaica Biomedical Science Department Experience in training Health Professionals

Background: In a region of Caribbean states with limited human and financial resources institutions of higher education must use the technology available to reach its students across the region and allow professionals in the Biomedical Sciences to teach, interact and follow students from first year to their professional registration. This paper shares the journey of our students’ progression across island states using Social Networking and Social media academic delivery. Objective: Using Information Communication Technology to delivery and monitor students across. Collect the data of their academic success and monitor their the use of knowledge over the 4 years of training so see if there was a link between the success at board examinations and the use and participation of the technology. Method: Accounts were opened with groups of students from the different islands. The research team was made managers of the account. Lectures, tutorials and labs were discussed. After completion of the module clinical cases were discussed building on a student’s foundation knowledge. Control group used Moodle and at the end of were allowed to progress without for the next cohort. Results: Students who remained active in a Social and Social Networking Group after completing their modules had a higher rate of success in their professional registration examinations. Conclusions: Social and Social Networking Media had a very positive and lasting effect in the learning process than the control group using Moodle who were allowed to progress after they completed each modules. The quality of performance in the registration/board examinations was also better.

Main Anonymization Techniques for Personal Health Data

Any open-licensed or otherwise health informatics and personal health data, any open linked data for health education that consider personal health data as well as any data used in open education in the life sciences need to be anonymized before any use of them either for commercial or non-commercial purpose. In the light of Directive 95/46/EC and other relevant EU legal instruments, anonymization results from processing personal data such as personal health data in order to irreversibly prevent identification of personal health data subjects. In doing so, several elements should be taken into account by personal health data controllers, having regard to all the means “likely reasonably” to be used for identification (either by the controller or by any third party). Anonymization constitutes a further processing of personal health data; as such, it must satisfy the requirement of compatibility by having regard to the legal grounds and circumstances of the further processing. Additionally, anonymized personal health data do fall out of the scope of data protection legislation, but data subjects may still be entitled to protection under other provisions (such as those protecting confidentiality of communications). In this short speech and presentation the author aims at presenting the main anonymization techniques, namely randomization and generalization. The author presents main anonymization techniques for personal health data, their principles, their strengths and weaknesses, as well as the common mistakes and failures related to the use of each technique.

Protection of Traditional Medical Knowledge under Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual Property (IP) Law constitutes the legal framework that ensures the protection of original creations of the mind against their illicit use and misappropriation. Providing the original creator with his rights constitutes a problem in cases such as traditional knowledge and cultural expressions since the rights over a practice cannot be traced back to specific individuals. Traditional Medical Knowledge (TMK) describes the practices and knowledge gained by native indigenous populations which is passed on from generation to generation and which is conducive towards the development of medicinal research. These forms of medical know-how are multidimensional and are often closely linked to the cultural practices and the national identity of many indigenous populations. The lack of a means of legal protection for this source of knowledge is an issue that touches both upon economic and moral grounds. The industrial exploitation of TMK native to a country may not only undermine that country’s economy and facilitate misappropriation; it may also have a negative impact on matters of national identity. This is an issue of ongoing importance, which has not yet been adequately met. Patents (a significant IP protection in the medical field) have little application to TMK. Trade secrets and geographical indications are other such solutions of limited usefulness in the protection of TMK but have been used in some countries alongside with sui generis systems and customary laws or practices. A possible solution example can be examined at initiatives such as the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library, which aims at documenting traditional medical literature on ancient Indian therapeutic practices. It is necessary that based upon current IP resolution methods a new means of protection is provided for that will enable all nationalities to safeguard their cultural diversity whilst respecting medical knowledge dissemination within the framework of a digital era.
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